April 13, 2015

So this spider walks into a pine cone...

By Rod Crawford

Euryopis formosa spider in pine cone, July 10, 2011,
Thunder Lake, Yakima County, Washington.
Photo: Laurel Ramseyer.
On a sunny day in late May 2008, I went on a spider collecting field trip to Swauk Prairie outside of Cle Elum, Washington, with Laurel Ramseyer, a friend and field volunteer. The weather forecast called for "breezy." We'd have called it downright windy!

It was difficult to collect spiders with the wind blowing away anything loose and exposed. I did manage to sift nine spider species from hawthorn leaf litter, but only swept six species from the rippling sea of grass. Laurel had similar troubles.

Then Laurel saw a spider run into a large fallen pine cone (probably to get out of the wind), so she picked up the pine cone and started to whack it inside her net in an attempt to collect the spider. It worked! We were in a Ponderosa pine woodland with a lot of pine cones so she continued whacking more cones and eventually added three good species to that site's spider list.

This small beginning led to a major obsession for Laurel and she began using this method at other sites. To date she has whacked nearly 7,000 pine cones inside a heavy-duty net held against her leg, looking for the pine cone spider fauna that she, in a sense, discovered. Laurel (with a little help from me) collected 1,060 spiders from 4,600 eastern Washington pine cones between 2008 and 2013. I identified the spiders and added them to the Burke's collection.

Laurel sorting a pine cone beat sample, May 18, 2011,
Moloy Road on Wenas Creek, Yakima County, Washington.
Photo: Rod Crawford.

As it turns out, no spider species were previously recorded as collected from pine cones. Discovering a new spider species is relatively common, but discovering a whole new spider habitat—that's really something!

Some spiders evidently live in pine cones long-term, while others just use them to molt, lay eggs and rest when not out hunting. Or they wander in at random like that first one Laurel saw back at Swauk Prairie.

Euryopis formosa spider on pine cone scale, June 4, 2011,
Teanaway Campground, Kittitas County, Washington.
Photo: Laurel Ramseyer.

The spider we most commonly found in Washington pine cones was Euryopis formosa, a beautiful creature with a dark heart shape inside a bright silver patch on the abdomen. Sampling pine cones more than quadrupled the number of E. formosa specimens in the Burke spider collection—it was found at 47% of sampling sites!

This was the first study to describe the spider fauna of fallen pine cones and now there are 89 species recorded in our published paper, including two species never found in Washington state before.

Spiders are everywhere—even in pine cones!

Pine cone with spider web, June 22, 2011,
Thirteenmile Creek, Ferry County, Washington.
Photo: Laurel Ramseyer.


To learn which spider species use fallen pine cones, read our study published in Western North American Naturalist (PDF). 

Interested in more about arachnids? Read other Burke blog posts by Rod or check out Rod's Spider Myths website for myths, misconceptions, and superstitions about spiders.

February 12, 2015

Studying hybrid lizard species through DNA

by Jared Grummer 

I often wonder what non-scientists think of my research: why would people care about lizards that most will never see? When I say I study hybrids, do they think I mean hybrid cars? Hybridization, or interbreeding between distinct species, of lizards in Argentina is a very foreign idea for most, in more ways than one.

Lizard basking in the sand
Liolaemus "melanops", though this likely represents an undescribed species.

January 27, 2015

Origin of the Seahawks logo: The story unfolds

It’s been one year since we first explored the connection between a Native mask from the Pacific Northwest and the original Seattle Seahawks logo. What a year it has been! Now, as the Seahawks prepare to "re-Pete" their visit to the Super Bowl, here’s what we’ve learned so far about the mask that inspired the logo.

Photo courtesy of the Hudson Museum.

November 11, 2014

A collection of Washington state symbols, natural history style

On Nov. 11, 2014, Washington state turns 125. In the spirit of celebrating, we highlighted 12 objects in the Burke collections that are quintessentially Washington—at least according to the Revised Code of Washington (RCW), a compilation of all laws enacted by the state's Legislature.

Washington has 22 official state symbols to date under the RCW, and 12 of them can be found at the Burke Museum—the Washington state museum of natural history and culture since 1899. We care for these objects, and millions more, as a record of nature and culture to help us to understand how the choices we make today will affect the future.

Here are the 12 Washington state symbols in the Burke collections:

State Tree: Western Hemlock

The western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) is found in Washington's temperate rain forests. This evergreen conifer can grow up to heights of 230 feet, with the longest living specimen being more than 1,200 years old; it became the State Tree in 1947. Fun fact: new-growth needles can be steeped to make vitamin-rich tea. Date collected: May 6, 1967.

November 04, 2014

Digging for fossils in the Petrified Forest

By Tom Kaye

The sky was crystal clear as my wife Carol and I geared up for our first day “on expedition” at Petrified Forest National Park in northern Arizona. This trip was particularly exciting for us because Petrified Forest had recently acquired a huge new tract of land and we, along with several colleagues from the Burke Museum, were the first team going in to look for fossils!

Specifically, we were looking for fossils of huge predators from 210 million years ago during the Triassic Period. We knew that most of the fossils we found would belong to extinct groups known as aetosaurs and phytosaurs. The former sported armor plates and foot-long spikes to ward off attacks. The latter were the Triassic equivalent of crocodiles: aquatic predators that you didn’t want to mess with.

Hunting for fossils isn’t as glamorous as it’s cracked up to be. It was never less than 100 degrees on the desert floor thanks to the sun’s reflection. We wore SPF 50 sunblock made for children so it didn’t sting when the sweat runs in your eyes. We were almost never in sight of anyone else. And the best fossils are ALWAYS the farthest from the truck.

So, I hope you enjoy the pictures and know that you’re getting the best parts of the trip right here!

October 25, 2014

What do you collect? 10 unique visitor collections

Over the past four months, we've asked Burke Museum visitors to answer a simple question in our Imagine That exhibit: what do you collect?

"What do you collect?" tags hang in the Burke's Imagine That exhibit.
As the Washington state museum of natural history and culture, we collect to form a record of the life before us and to bring together people, objects and the stories that make them meaningful. We share a curiosity and passion for collecting with our visitors.

So far, more than 2,000 visitors have told us what they collect and why their collection is special. While we see several types of collections come up regularly—rocks, shells, money—some collections stood out as particularly unique.

Here is a sampling of 10 one-of-a-kind visitor collections shared with us so far:

1. Woodchips with holes

First name: Diane
What I collect: Woodchips with holes
My collection is special because... It began with a child giving me one, and then another, and another... and now I have hundreds!!

October 13, 2014

Seattle's ghost shorelines

By Peter Lape, Amir Sheikh, and Don Fels

Someday soon, Seattle’s downtown waterfront will look very different than it does today. The City of Seattle is replacing our crumbling seawall, and perhaps Bertha will resume digging the tunnel to replace the rickety, looming and loud Alaska Way Viaduct, scheduled to be torn down in 2016.

These changes create the potential to reconnect to the Elliot Bay shoreline, a main reason the city was established here in the first place. Planning continues for a re-imagined waterfront, and architects, designers, planners and politicians are starting to share their ideas with Seattlites.

An architectural rendering shows what a Pioneer Square beach at the foot of Washington Street could look like.
Photo: Courtesy of James Corner Field Operations and City of Seattle, Adapted from The Seattle Times’ September 12, 2014 article titled “Seattle’s new waterfront: What it might look like and why.”